Carrot requires a relatively long growing season than the other root crops. The optimum temperature is 7.2.-23.90C for germination and 18.3-23.90C for growth. The best root colour develops at 15- 200C. Temperature higher than 300C, particular in later stages of development, induces undesirable strong flavour and coarseness in the roots. Temperate types need low temperature of 5-80C for 40-60 days before flowering to break dormancy. Radish main season varieties develop best flavour, texture and root size when the temperature is between 10-150C. In temperate types, maximum root growth occurs initially at 20-300C and later at 10-140C. More foliage growth is favoured at temperature above 200C. In hot weather roots become pungent and tough before attaining marketable maturity

Soil Requirement: Carrot needs a deep, loose loamy soil for best root development. Heavy soils check root development and promote forking. A soil pH of 6.5 is desirable for obtaining higher yield of better quality roots.

Improved Variety :

Carrot: Punjab Black Beauty (2013) : It is a tropical variety and roots attain edible maturity after 93 days of sowing. Leaves are dark green and petioles are purple in colour. Roots are purple-black, 26 cm long and 3.20 cm in diameter. Roots have ability to stay in the field over a fortnight after reaching edible maturity. This variety has high nutraceutical values and excellent quality characters. It is rich in anthocyanins (182 mg/100g) and phenols (73 mg/100g) which protect from cancers. It has high juice content (580 ml/kg), calcium (50mg/ 100g), iron (1.10mg/100g), TSS (7.5 per cent) and dry matter (11 per cent). Fresh carrots are suitable for salad, juice, pickle and kanji. Average root yield is 196 q/acre.

PC-34 (2005) : It takes on an average 90 days to mature after sowing. The leaves are dark green and the average plant height is 62 cm. The roots are red in colour. The average length of root is 25 cm with a small core i.e. 0.95 cm. The root diameter is about 3.15 cm. This variety has excellent quality characters. The dry matter is 13.3 per cent and juice yield is 480 ml/kg. The TSS is 8.8 per cent, total sugars 5.81 g/100g, reducing sugars 2.17 g/100g and alcohol insoluble solids are 60.8 g/100g. The carotene content is 8.86 mg/ 100g. Its average yield is 204 q/acre.

For desi varieties of carrot, August-September is the best time of sowing. European types should be sown in October- November. A seed rate of 4 to 5 kg is required for carrot. A spacing of 45 cm between ridges and 7.5 cm between plants in the row is common for these crops. The plant spacing is maintained by thinning at the time of true leaf formation. Thinning is very important for producing superior quality roots.

Manures and Fertilizers: 15 tonnes of farmyard manure, with 25 kg. of N (55 kg of Urea) and 12 kg. of P205 (75 kg. of Single Superphosphate) per acre is the common fertilizer dose. Carrot requires, in addition, 30 kg. of K20 (50 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre, as in the absence of potash, its root development is not good. Apply all fertilizers at sowing. Well rotten farmyard manure should be applied to root crops.

Weeding and Earthing up: Carrot normally grows slowly in the beginning and cannot compete with weeds. Removal of weeds is necessary especially in the early stages.

Irrigation: First irrigation should be given immediately after seed sowing. Subsequent irrigations should be given at 6-7 day intervals during summer and 10-12 days during winter, depending upon soil type. carrot requires 3-4 irrigations. Excessive irrigation results in misshapen roots and numerous hair growth.

Harvesting: Carrots will be ready for harvest in about 90-100 days depending upon variety. Carrot can be harvested when roots have developed marketable size and attractive deep orange colour.

Processing : The fermentation process of LANC from Carrot and Amla with yeast Clavispora lusitaniae has been optimized. The beverage can be prepared at small and large scale with shelf life of 3 months. The technology can reduce the problem of carrot-amla glut in market, making the availability of nutrients in the form of effervescent beverage for long period.

Seed Production: Carrot: Follow the same practices as for table crop for raising roots. Roots raised in one acre are sufficient to plant four acres of seed crop. Transplant stecklings at 45 x 30 cm in the second fortnight of December. Apply 30 kg. N (65 kg. Urea) and 8 kg. P205 (50 kg. Superphosphate) per acre. Apply whole of P2O5 and half of N before transplanting and the rest half of the N after 30 days.