BRINJAL

Climate and Soil :Brinjal requires a long and warm growing season. The plant is sensitive to frost injury. Chilling weather for a long time may also damage the crop. A well drained and fertile soil is desirable for growing brinjal. It is a hardy plant and can be grown on different kinds of soil but does best on silt loams and clay loams. However to raise an early crop sandy or sandy loam soil is preferred.


Improved Varieties/Hybrids :

Round Fruited :
Punjab Neelam (1998) : It is ready for first picking in 65 days after transplanting. Plants are medium in height erect, thornless, foliage is green with purple tinge, fruits are oval-round, medium-sized and shining dark purple in colour. It is suitable for transplanting in February and August. Average yield is 140 q/acre.
Oblong Fruited :
BH-2 (1994) : Leaves of this hybrid are green and purplish. Plants are medium, erect, spreading and thornless. Its fruits are oblong and deep purple. Average weight per fruit is 300 g. It is highly suitable for cooking as ‘bhartha’. It is tolerant to fruit borer. Average yield is 235 q/acre.
Long Fruited :
Punjab Barsati (1987) : This variety takes about 64 days from transplanting to the first harvesting. Its plants are dwarf, erect and thornless. The leaves are medium-long and shining purple. Its average yield is 140 q/acre. It is more tolerant to fruit-borer and is most suitable for transplanting in rainy season.
Punjab Sada Bahar (1987) : This variety takes about 76 days from transplanting to the first harvesting. Its plants are dwarf, erect and thornless. The leaves are green. The fruits are long, thin and deep purple. Its average yield is 125 q/acre. It is good for summer, autumn and also as ratoon crop. It is comparatively tolerant to fruitborer.

Small Fruited :
PBH-3 (2013) : The plants of this hybrid are medium in height, compact and thornless. Foliage is green with purple tinge. Flowers are purple and borne in clusters. Fruits are shining purple of small size and oblong shape. It is comparatively tolerant to fruit borer. It is early in fruiting and gives 257 quintal per acre yield.
Punjab Nagina (2007) : Its plants are dwarf, semi-erect with dark green and spineless leaves. Its flowers are light-violet in colour with green calyx. Its fruits are shining, purple black, small, round and borne in clusters. This variety gives first picking in 55 days after transplanting. The average yield is 145 q/acre.
Agronomic Practices
Seed Rate : To plant an acre 300 to 400 g of seed is grown in one marla (25m x 1m) on raised beds.
Sowing Time : The sowing time of four successive crops of brinjal is given below :
1. The nursery for the first crop is sown in October and seedlings
are transplanted in November.
2. The nursery for the second crop is sown in November. It gives
seedlings for transplanting in the first fortnight of February. The
seedlings of this nursery are required to be protected against frost. 3. The seed for the third crop is sown in nursery beds in February-
March. The seedlings are transplanted before the end of April. 4. The seed for the fourth crop is sown in the nursery beds in July
and transplanting is done in August.
Low tunnel technology :
During winter protection of brinjal plants from low temperature with low tunnel technology gives early and high yield. For this nursery should be transplanted in first fortnight of November on raised beds at spacing of 90 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants. In first week of Dec., iron arches are fixed and covered with transparent non perforated plastic sheet of 50 micron thickness. When the temperature starts warming up, remove the polythene sheet in second fortnight of Feb.
Spacing : Rows are spaced 60 cm apart and plants are spaced 30-45cm apart in the row.

Manures and Fertilizers :
Apply 10 tonnes of well rotten farmyard manure. Apply 25 kg of N (55 kg of Urea) 25 kg of P205 (155 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 12 kg of K2O (20 kg of Muriate of Potash) per acre. Apply all the fertilizers at transplanting. After two pickings, again apply 25 kg of N
(55 kg of Urea) per acre.
Irrigation : First irrigation should be given immediately after transplanting. During summer irrigate the crop at 4-6 days interval whereas during winter season irrigate at 10-14 days interval depending on soil type. It requires 10-16 irrigations.
Harvesting :
Fruits should be harvested when fully developed but tender. Harvest every week in the peak season.
Seed Production :
The brinjal variety should be grown at least 200 meter apart from other brinjal varieties. Minimum three field inspections should be made, first at vegetative phase, second at flowering and fruiting and third before harvesting of fruits. Any off type and diseased plants should be removed. For seed production, the ripe fruits which turned yellow are crushed and stored overnight and then the seeds are separated after washing with water is sieved and dried. The washing is usually done in the morning so that the seed is dried during the day. The dried seed is packed and labelled.

Plant Protection
A. Insect Pests

 

Pests and Symptoms

Control Measures

Precautions

 

1. Jassid (Amrasca biguttula), Hadda beetle (Elapilachna sp.) and brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) cause dam- age during May to Sep- tember. Plants attacked by jassid become pale and finally bronze. A large number of green- ish adults and nymphs are seen on the lower surface of leaves. Hadda adults and grubs feed on the leaves. Shoot infested with borer droop down- wards and dry up. In- fested fruits have a varying number of holes.

 

Spray with 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC/acre at 10 day intervals as soon as the jassid and Hadda beetle ap- pear. To control brinjal fruit and shoot borers, spray 3- 4 times at 14-days interval using 100-125 litres of water/acre with any one of the following insecticides as soon as the attack starts. A. Carbamate group
i) 800g Sevin/Hexavin 50 WP (carbaryl)
B. Synthetic Pyrethroids Group
1) 100 ml Sumicidin 20 EC
(fenvalerate)
2) 200ml Ripcord 10E
(cypermethrin)
3) 160ml Decis 2.8 EC
(deltamethrin)
C. Phosphatic Group
i) 800 ml Ekalux 25 EC
(quinalphos)
2) 500 ml Hostathion 40 EC
(triazophos)

 

 

1. Pick regularly all ripe fruits before spraying. 2. All the infested fruits should be picked and destroyed.
3. Do not ratoon the brinjal crop.
4. For the control of brinjal fruit and shootborer, insecticides of the same group should not be used repeatedly in order to avoid the development of pesti- cide resistance and appearance of second- ary pests.
5. A waiting period of 4 days in case of Ekalux and Hostathion should be observed after the spray.

2. Spider mites
(Tetranychus urticae) attack during April- June and are very seri- ous when the condi- tions are hot and dry. Initially yellowsh-white specks appear on the leaves followed by scorching and leaf fall. Mite attacked leaves attract lot of dust par- ticles.

Spray 300 ml Omite 57 EC or 300 ml of Kelthane 18.5 EC or 450 ml Fosmite 50 EC or 250 ml of Metasystox 25 EC per 150 litres of water per acre.

1.Do not keep brinjal as ratoon crop.
2. Do not delay or with- hold irrigation during April-June.
3. Sprays of pyrethroid should be done only on need basis.

B. Diseases

Diseases

Causal Organisms

Symptoms

Control Measures

1.Phomopsis blight

Phomopsis vexans

Straw-brown to deep brown spots de- velop on the leaves and fruits. The in- fected areas of the fruits begin to rot.

Collect seed from healthy fruits. Treat seed with Thiram or Captan @3g/kg. of seed before sowing. Spray Ziram or Zineb @200g in 100 litres of water per acre at weekly interval after transplanting.

2. White rot

Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum

Disease appears as light pinkish brown water soaked irregular areas on leaves which become cov- ered with white mycelium under humid and cool weather conditions. Hard black bodies
(sclerotia) are formed inter- mingled with cot- tony growth on the leaves. The stem infection develops as pale or dark brown lesions. The sclerotia are formed either inter- nally in the stem or intermingled with white mycelium on outside of stem. The fungus also causes wet rot on fruits. The infected
portion rotsin the
later stage of infec-
tion. Black sclero-
tia intermingled
with white mycelium
are formed on the
infected portion.
The disease is se-
vere at flowering
and fruiting stage of
the crop.

i) Avoid growing of brinjal, after the sus- ceptible crops like pea cauliflower, carrot and binjal, instead tomato and chilli can be grown. This will help in reducing the dis- ease and spread of in- oculum in the field. ii) The plant debris of crop should be col- lected and burnt. iii) Avoid growing of main season crop
(July-February) in the disease prone fields.

3. Little leaf

Mycoplosma like organisms
(MLO)

Leaves are reduced in size. Affected plants give rossette appearance. Plants fail to produce flow- ers and fruits. Transmitted by jas- sid. It is more se- vere in ratoon crop.

1. Rogue out the af- fected plants.
2. Keep the jassid un- der check by spraying Malathion @250ml in 100 litres of water/acre in nursery and in the field.

4. Root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Yellowing of leaves, patchy and unthrifty plants,knot like swelling/ galls are formed on roots.

1.Solazie water satu- rated nursery bed us- ing transparent polythene sheet (50 micron) for 40 days in the months of May- June for the control of root knot nematode in nursery beds.
2. Grow garlic in root knot nematode infested fields in rotation with other vegetable crops