“kxk dw nwV nUM A`g nw lwa, q`q aupjwaU nw Awp mukwa”               “Jony dI prwlI, kxk dw nwV, kdy nw swV, kdy nw swV”               “kxk dw nwV kdy nw jlwa, vwqwvrn swP suQrw bxwa”               “Kyq dw mlbw, Kyq iv`c”


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Ludhiana city was founded in the time of Lodhi dynasty which ruled in Delhi from 1451-1526 A.D. The legend goes that two Lodhi chiefs, Yusaf Khan and Nihand Khan were deputed by Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517 A.D.) to restore order in this region. They camped at the site of present city of Ludhiana which was then a village called Mir Hota. Yusaf Khan went across the river Sutlej in Jalandhar Doab to check Khokhars who were plundering the Doab and made a settlement at Sultanpur while Nihand Khan stayed back and founded the present city at the site of village Mir Hota. The new town was originally known as Lodhi-ana, which means the town of Lodi's. The name later changed to the present name Ludhiana.

Ludhiana is the most advanced agricultural district and plays an important role in directing the shape of Punjab agriculture. It was among the foremost districts of the country where IADP was launched. The total geopraphical area of the district is 3767 sq km. The District has 3 lakh ha of net area sown, almost 100% is double cropped, and some area is even put to 3 crops a year. All is irrigated, mostly by tubewells. The water table is going down at an alarming rate in Ludhiana district and even more seriously around the Ludhiana city blocks. There are 72000 operational holdings of whom, 1/3rd are the small and marginal ones of less than 2 ha. It has the distinction of having the agricultural universities of the state (PAU and GADVASU). It is the central district of the state and farmers from all over the state follow Ludhiana so far as adoption of new technology in agiculture is concerned. Ludhiana district achieved the national productivity award for the year 2004-05 . But for the last seven years the yield of major crops has not shown any significant growth, in fact it has decreased over the last few years.

 
General census


Table: Block wise Demographic Information of the District
 

S. No.

Name of Block

Population (2001 Census)

Literacy (%)

Male
(No.)

Female
(No.)

Workers
(No.)

Caste
(No)

           

Agri.

Non. Agri

SC

Gen.

1

Ludhiana I

147645

77.6

79623

68022

12713

42776

51964

95681

2.

Ludhiana II

171376

68.86

91667

79709

21524

39649

69753

101623

3.

Machiwara

88899

71.54

46905

41994

15085

24594

23998

64901

4.

Samrala

80988

73.99

43167

37821

10733

23341

30640

50348

5.

Khanna

107871

71.68

57423

50448

14610

32070

45888

61983

6.

Doraha

93559

73.41

49868

43691

13100

26043

32931

60628

7.

Dehlon

123299

73.54

65631

57668

17317

35905

48006

75293

8.

Pakhowal

106360

76.47

56823

49537

14095

31043

37643

68717

9.

Sudhar

167442

74.19

99586

78856

23268

42684

59854

107588

10.

Jagraon

137414

69.59

72761

64653

24555

28754

50510

86904

11.

Sidhwan Bet

118313

69.49

62198

56115

23183

22056

41110

77203

 

Total

1343166

72.76

714652

628514

190183

348915

492297

850869


Table : Block wise Information of Area and Number of Village
 

S. No.

Name of the
Block

Geographical Area
(ha)

Cultivated Area
(ha)

Number of Villages

1.

Ludhiana I

34146

17735

59

2.

Ludhiana II

53556

39397

178

3.

Machiwara

32182

27485

136

4.

Samrala

19029

15673

63

5.

Khanna

27673

22173

88

6.

Doraha

24012

21256

57

7.

Dehlon

28095

23415

75

8.

Pakhowal

29384

24710

51

9.

Sudhar

36529

31502

68

10.

Jagraon

40995

34342

48

11.

Sidhwan Bet

42711

35875

92

 

Total

368312

293563

915



Table: Representative Villages and Blocks under Various Agro-Ecological Situations
 

Name of the Region

Agro-Ecological Situation

Name of Blocks

Representative Villages

Remarks

River Bed (Bet) Area

AES-1

Sidhwan Bet

Ludhiana II

Machhiwara

Jandi, Walipur
Kalan, Gorsian
Hakam Rai, Kutbewal, Nurpur Bet, Bhattian

Flood prone Area, Alluvial soils, Good underground water high watertable

Mand Area

AES-II

Jagraon (N)
Ludhiana, Samrala

Jhande, Kaind , Sekhupura, Seh,Dhillwan

Light to medium soils

Good underground water

Canal command

AES-III

Dehlon
Doraha
Sudhar

Dhode, Lehra, Sudhar, Ghaloti, Landa Ghumana

Canal irrigated, Well drained soils

Reclaimed

 Sand dunes

AES-IV

Jagraon (S) Pakhowal
Khanna
Sudhar(P)

Mipur Hans, Rachhin, Kaille, Rajgarh, Karodian, Malakpur

Light to medium soils, good quality underground water


AES: Agro-Ecological Situation

A brief information about each Agro- Ecological Situation is given as under:-
AES-1
It Comprises of the blocks of Sidhwan Bet, Ludhiana II, Machhiwara, These have a geographical area of 128449 hectare (34.9%), out of which 102757 hectare is under cultivation. It is a flood prone area with medium to heavy normal soil and good quality underground water. This AES is river bed area of Sutlej River.
AES-1I
It is district which is comprised of blocks Jagraon (N), Ludhiana 1, Samrala. It has light to medium quality soil and good quality underground water. Main feature of this AES is that the soils were formed by the alluvium deposited by the river Sutlej from the total geographical area of 73175 hectare (19.8%), 50408 hectare area is under cultivation.
AES-III
This AES consists of blocks Dehlon, Doraha, Sudhar. These have a geographical area of 88636 hectare (24.1%) under them, out of which 76173 hectare area is under cultivation. The soil of this AES is medium to heavy. Underground water in this AES is of good quality.
AES-1V
This AES consists of blocks Jagaon (S), Pakhowal, Khanna, Sudhar. Some of this area was under sand dunes. Those have been reclaimed. Patches of sodic soils existed in the past but those have been reclaimed now. These hava a geographical area of 78052 hectare (21.2%) under them, out of which 71825 hectare area is under cultivation.


Table: Tehsil- wise Land use Classification (000�ha)
 

S.No.

Tehsil

Geographical Area

Cultivated Area(Net)

Urrent Fellow

Forest

Pesture

Under Non-Agri.Use

Barren & Uncultivable (Waste Land)

1

Ludhiana I

64.3

46.0

-

2.4

-

15.0

-

2

Ludhiana II

61.2

46.7

-

2.0

-

12.5

-

3

Jagraon

81.0

71.3

-

1.7

-

8.0

-

4

Raikot

44.8

38.9

-

0.1

-

6.0

-

5

Payal

42.5

38.3

-

0.6

-

3.6

-

6

Samrala

50.0

42.4

-

2.3

-

2.3

-

7

Khanna

24.2

18.5

-

0.9

-

0.9

-

 

Total

368

302.1

-

10

-

48.3

-


Table: Block wise soil Type and Deficient Micro-Nutrient
 

S. No.

Block

Alluvial

Alkaline

Deficient Micro-Nutrient

1.

Ludhiana I

M-H

Normal

Zn,Mn

2.

Ludhiana II

M-H

N-A

Zn,Mn

3.

Machiwara

M-H

Normal

Zn,Mn,Fe

4.

Samrala

M-H

Normal

Zn

5.

Khanna

M-H

Normal

Zn

6.

Doraha

M-H

N-A

Zn,Fe

7.

Dehlon

M-H

Normal

Zn, Fe,Mn,

8.

Pakhowal

M-H

Normal

Zn,Fe

9.

Sudhar

L-M

Normal

S, Zn, Mn

10.

Jagraon

L-M

Normal

S, Zn, Mn

11.

Sidhwan Bet

M-H

Normal

Zn,Fe

L=light

M= Medium

H= Heavy

N-A= None Alkaline


Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district
 

S. No.

Crop

Area (ha)

Production (tonnes)

Productivity (qtl/ha)

1.

Rice

2.57 lac

1094

42.57

2.

Wheat

2.57 lac

1292

50.26

3.

Maize

2000

6000

29.95

4.

Arhar

800

600

7.62

5.

Moong

700

400

6.12

6.

Cotton

1000

3000

5.37

8.

Oilseeds

1200

2000

14.20

9.

Sugarcane

1500

9000

60.00

10.

Sunflower

1000

1700

16.75

 

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